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高三学生每天画画21个小时,亢奋过度致躁郁症欲自杀[多图]

yst 2018-3-9 16:46:14 抑郁症躁郁症 我要评论(0)

许多人都听说过抑郁症,但是对躁郁症不是很了解,近日有一高三学生,就患了躁郁症,躁郁症一般是指双相障碍,既有躁狂的表现,也有抑郁的一面,有时候看起来很兴奋,但是有时候却沉默抑郁不想说话,甚至会有自杀的念头,哪些原因会造成躁郁症呢?

高三学生每天画画21个小时,亢奋过度致躁郁症欲自杀(1)

1、高三学生亢奋致躁郁症

最近,邵逸夫医院来了一位企图自杀的高三学生小周。

两个月前,小周因与好朋友闹矛盾心情一直很低落,后来与朋友和好后仍然不开心,兴趣也下降了,以前很喜欢画画,现在厌烦画画;以前喜欢打游戏,现在也不想打了;以前一直想考中国美院,现在却觉得考不考无所谓。

小周读书时注意力不集中,上课容易走神,常常老师刚讲过的题目都做不出来,小周感到特别自卑,甚至有时候觉得活着没意思,脑海里思索过怎么割腕,坐公交车会想着如何从桥上跳下去。

两周前,小周用美工刀割伤自己的左手,被家长发现,送来邵逸夫医院就诊,门诊医生考虑小周可能得了“抑郁症”,建议住院治疗。

医生详细询问了小周的病史,尤其是每次情绪波动的时间与程度。小周仔细回忆后,想起三个月前曾有过情绪特别高亢的情形。

那时,小周精力非常旺盛,感觉自己有用不完的精力,每天一直画画,能从早上7点一直画到凌晨3点,只要休息2-3个小时就够了,也不会觉得累。而且对自己很自信,认为自己一定能以优异的成绩考上中国美院,觉得脑子特别灵活,学知识很快,这种超常状态持续有一个月的时间,逐渐转为消极悲观的相反一面。

医生了解到上述信息后,明确小周不是单纯的“抑郁症”,而是“双相情感障碍”(俗称躁郁症)的诊断,很快调整了药物治疗方案,增加了心境稳定剂。经过3周的精心治疗,小周情绪逐渐平稳,又可以拿起喜欢的画笔画画了。

虽然双相情感障碍这个医学名词公众并不熟知,但你是否知道“疯狂的天才”、“大喜大悲的人生”、“所有精神障碍中自杀率最高”……,这些关键词都指向同一个疾病——双相情感障碍。

2017年12月8日,《至爱梵高·星空之谜》在中国上映,引发热烈讨论。该片的灵魂人物梵高,是后印象主义的先驱,深深地影响了二十世纪的艺术。其作品《星夜》、《向日葵》与《麦田乌鸦》等,俨然跻身于全球最为知名且珍贵的艺术品行列。然而,这样一个有着极强艺术创造力的人,却饱受精神疾病的折磨,痛苦不堪。让梵高备受困扰和折磨的精神疾病,就是双相情感障碍,是一种既有躁狂或轻躁狂发作,又有抑郁发作的心境障碍疾病。

双相情感障碍发作时,患者会出现情绪和活动水平的明显紊乱。有时表现为情绪高涨、精力和活动增加,说话滔滔不绝,自信心爆棚,无节制的购物或行为莽撞(嗨到爆);有时表现为情绪低落、精力降低和活动减少,丧失兴趣和愉快感,悲观自责(丧到没)。发作间期通常以完全缓解(平常状态)为特征。

双相情感障碍在综合医院的漏诊和误诊率非常高。即使确诊的双相情感障碍患者,目前的治疗状况也令人堪忧。

高三学生每天画画21个小时,亢奋过度致躁郁症欲自杀(2)

2、易造成躁郁症的原因

1、生理因素。老年人的各种身体疾病,如高血压病、冠心病糖尿病症等,都可能继发躁郁症。还有许多患慢性病老人,由于长期服用某些药物,也易引起躁郁症。此外,老年躁郁症患者的家庭成员的患病率远远高于一般人群,其子女的发病率也高,说明此病与遗传因素有一定关系。

2、社会与心理因素。躁郁症的出现与老年期的各种丧失有较大的关系,这些丧失包括工作的丧失、收入的减少、亲友的离世、人际交往的缺乏等等。例如,老年人退休后对于角色转变在心理上常常出现不适应,巨大的落差会产生失落感,导致情绪低落。另外,交往圈子变窄,人际互动减少,以及亲友,尤其是配偶的去世,使老年人缺乏情感支持,也是导致老年躁郁症的常见病因。

3、个人因素。老年躁郁症的发生与个人的人格因素也很有关系。老年人在身体出现不适、或慢性病久治不愈时会变得心情沉闷,或害怕绝症、或恐惧死亡,或担心成为家人累赘,从而形成一种强大而持久的精神压力,引起躁郁。

高三学生每天画画21个小时,亢奋过度致躁郁症欲自杀(3)

3、高三压力大如何减压

1.消除压力源

缓解压力最直接的方法就是找到压力源,然后尽可能地消除它。如果你的压力是由于工作任务重造成的,不妨合理安排一下时间,重要的工作先做,次要的放一放,待时间充裕再完成。

2.合理宣泄

压力是在所难免的,在面对压力的时候,我们自己或许无法排解。此时,不妨将心中的压力和不快说出来,或者通过运动、唱歌、大喊、哭泣等方式宣泄出来,不良情绪一扫而空,压力自然得到了缓解。

3.做深呼吸

当你心力交瘁时,最快的一种恢复平稳的方法是深呼吸,然后想想到底是什么让你感觉焦虑。深呼吸也能在你体内注入更多的氧气,从而让你的精力更加旺盛。建议每天冥想10分钟。冥想是解除任何形式和程度压力的最好方法。它能降低心跳频率和血压,减缓呼吸,平复脑电波,更快恢复身心平稳,防止在压力下身体的免疫能力下降。

4.饮食解压

日常饮食多吃一些振奋精神、消除疲劳的饮食,也可以消除不良情绪,缓解压力。建议把一些缓慢释放能量的碳水化合物,如水果、粗粮、蚕豆、坚果和植物种子加入你每天的饮食清单中。特别是坚果和植物种子不仅含有碳水化合物,还含有蛋白质,是很好的抗压力食物。此外,还需要每日增补那些有效转化为能量的营养素,如B族维生素、胆碱、维生素C、钙、镁、锌、辅酶Q等。

5.慢运动缓释压

保持旺盛体力是应对压力十分有效的方式。运动之后,身体达到最佳平衡,从而变得放松、强壮、柔软、姿态良好,有足够的持久力。但是需要避免剧烈运动。最好的减压运动是慢运动,比如游泳、散步、瑜伽、太极拳等都会更有帮助。无论在家、工作,甚至逛街购物,我们多数时候都在室内。自然光照得不够,会让我们的身体失去节奏,承担压力的能力越来越差。因此,当你感觉到有压力时,多到户外走动,即使天气不怎么好,也要坚持。或许大家都有自己爱好的运动,例如篮球,足球,实在没有爱好的同学,跑步也行。可以适当加大运动强度,将自己的不满,反抗都发泄到运动中去,这样是很好的缓解压力的方法。但是运动宣泄法,务必要注意适当,不要变相成为虐待,对身体产生伤害,要顾及到接下来的学习任务。

6.按摩解压法

按摩是一种很好的缓解压力的办法。按摩没有必要去找专业的按摩师来做,可以自己来完成一些简单的自我按摩。如用拇指压按太阳穴,做眼睛保健操,有拇指和食指提捏后颈部等,如果考生的父母懂得一些按摩的话,也可以请父母帮助按摩。

高三学生每天画画21个小时,亢奋过度致躁郁症欲自杀(4)

高三学习期间,很多学生的压力都非常大,感觉要高考了,但是自己成绩还不够理想,想要多学一些,但是精神状态可能不是很好,学不进去,就很焦虑,在高三期间有压力很正常,要注意适当的缓解压力,劳逸结合,避免身心出现问题。

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